Research.MolecularAndCellularMechanics History

Hide minor edits - Show changes to output

Changed line 5 from:
In a '''new direction''' in collaboration with [[http://mechse.illinois.edu/content/directory/faculty/profile.php?user_id=1498&page=2|Ning Wang]], we are investigating how intercellular adhesion proteins sense mechanical force and transmit proportional signals between cells in tissues. Using precision force probes, we demonstrated directly that cadherin complexes at cell-cell junctions are mechanosensors. We are investigating how force-induced conformational changes in proteins in this complex trigger molecular and signaling cascades that regulate cell functions in tissues and in engineered scaffolds.
to:
We are investigating how intercellular adhesion proteins sense and transmit mechanical signals between cells in tissues. Using precision force probes, we established that cadherin complexes, which are crucial cell-cell adhesion proteins are mechanosensors. We are investigating how force-induced conformational changes in proteins in this complex trigger molecular and signaling cascades that regulate cell functions in tissues and in engineered scaffolds. Using a systems level approach, we are also establishing how integrins and cadherins coordinate functions to regulate global cell properties and broader tissue mechanics.
Changed line 18 from:
To determine how adhesive cues control cell functions, we use microfabrication and surface chemistry to generate controlled, concentration fields of adhesive cues. A recent study assessed how these signals direct cell migration or alter such cell functions as differentiation or proliferation.  With nanopatterned materials we ask whether cells sense nanoscale features as well as the spatial distribution of defined cues.  How many molecules are required to trigger cell signaling?  On what length scales do cells sense biochemical or mechanical differences?
to:
To determine how adhesive cues control cell functions, we use [[Biomaterials|microfabrication and surface chemistry]] to generate controlled, concentration fields of adhesive cues. A recent study assessed how these signals direct cell migration or alter such cell functions as differentiation or proliferation.  With nanopatterned materials we ask whether cells sense nanoscale features as well as the spatial distribution of defined cues.  How many molecules are required to trigger cell signaling?  On what length scales do cells sense biochemical or mechanical differences?
August 18, 2011, at 05:15 PM by 130.126.230.170 -
Changed line 7 from:
Our approach combines nanomechanical measurements and live cell imaging to follow force-actuated changes in the cell in real time.  We are collaborating with [[http://www.feinberg.northwestern.edu/igp/facindex/GottardiC.html|Cara Gottardi]] and with [[http://www.hubrecht.eu/research/derooij/leader.html|J. de Rooij]] to identify key cellular components required for mechanosensing. In addition, we are using molecular dynamics simulations to determine how forces alter protein conformations in order to identify atomic scale mechanisms of force transduction.
to:
Our approach combines nanomechanical measurements and live cell imaging to follow dynamic force-actuated changes in cells.  We are collaborating with [[http://www.feinberg.northwestern.edu/igp/facindex/GottardiC.html|Cara Gottardi]] and with [[http://www.hubrecht.eu/research/derooij/leader.html|J. de Rooij]] to identify key cellular components required for mechanosensing. In addition, we use single molecular AFM studies and molecular dynamics simulations to determine how forces alter protein conformations in order to identify possible mechanisms of molecular force sensing.
Added lines 3-4:
%rfloat height=250px%http://www.scs.uiuc.edu/~leckband/uploads/Research/Strengthening.jpg
Deleted lines 5-6:

%rfloat height=250px%http://www.scs.uiuc.edu/~leckband/uploads/Research/Strengthening.jpg
Added lines 9-10:

Changed lines 13-15 from:
Cell adhesion research focuses on molecular mechanisms of cell adhesion and on the impact of adhesion on critical cell functions such as migration and signaling. %rfloat height=170px%http://www.scs.uiuc.edu/~leckband/uploads/Research/MPA3.jpg.  Our work spans length scales ranging from atomistic simulations to cell adhesion and migration in engineered environments. At the atomic level, steered molecular dynamics simulations identify structural features crucial to the mechanical functions of these proteins.  Sensitive, molecular level force-measurement techniques experimentally test predictions of the simulations, and investigate relationships between the protein structures, their mechanisms and strengths of binding, and their response to mechanical force-''at the [[Atomic Force Microscopy|single molecule level]]''. Using [[Micropipette Manipulation|single cell manipulation]], we also determine quantitative relationships betwen the properties of single protein bonds and the dynamics and strength of adhesion between living cells. 
to:
%rfloat height=170px%http://www.scs.uiuc.edu/~leckband/uploads/Research/MPA3.jpg. 
Cell adhesion research focuses on molecular mechanisms of cell adhesion and on the impact of adhesion on critical cell functions such as migration and signaling
. Our work spans length scales ranging from atomistic simulations to cell adhesion and migration in engineered environments. At the atomic level, steered molecular dynamics simulations identify structural features crucial to the mechanical functions of these proteins.  Sensitive, molecular level force-measurement techniques experimentally test predictions of the simulations, and investigate relationships between the protein structures, their mechanisms and strengths of binding, and their response to mechanical force-''at the [[Atomic Force Microscopy|single molecule level]]''. Using [[Micropipette Manipulation|single cell manipulation]], we also determine quantitative relationships betwen the properties of single protein bonds and the dynamics and strength of adhesion between living cells. 
Changed line 11 from:
Cell adhesion research focuses on molecular mechanisms of cell adhesion and on the impact of adhesion on critical cell functions such as migration and signaling.  %rfloat height=170px%http://www.scs.uiuc.edu/~leckband/uploads/Research/MPA3.jpg  Our work spans length scales ranging from atomistic simulations to cell adhesion and migration in engineered environments. At the atomic level, steered molecular dynamics simulations identify structural features crucial to the mechanical functions of these proteins.  Sensitive, molecular level force-measurement techniques experimentally test predictions of the simulations, and investigate relationships between the protein structures, their mechanisms and strengths of binding, and their response to mechanical force-''at the [[Atomic Force Microscopy|single molecule level]]''. Using [[Micropipette Manipulation|single cell manipulation]], we also determine quantitative relationships betwen the properties of single protein bonds and the dynamics and strength of adhesion between living cells. 
to:
Cell adhesion research focuses on molecular mechanisms of cell adhesion and on the impact of adhesion on critical cell functions such as migration and signaling. %rfloat height=170px%http://www.scs.uiuc.edu/~leckband/uploads/Research/MPA3.jpg.  Our work spans length scales ranging from atomistic simulations to cell adhesion and migration in engineered environments. At the atomic level, steered molecular dynamics simulations identify structural features crucial to the mechanical functions of these proteins.  Sensitive, molecular level force-measurement techniques experimentally test predictions of the simulations, and investigate relationships between the protein structures, their mechanisms and strengths of binding, and their response to mechanical force-''at the [[Atomic Force Microscopy|single molecule level]]''. Using [[Micropipette Manipulation|single cell manipulation]], we also determine quantitative relationships betwen the properties of single protein bonds and the dynamics and strength of adhesion between living cells. 
Changed lines 11-13 from:
Cell adhesion research focuses on molecular mechanisms of cell adhesion and on the impact of adhesion on critical cell functions such as migration and signaling.
%rfloat height=170px%http://www.scs.uiuc.edu/~leckband/uploads/Research/MPA3.jpg
Our work spans length scales ranging from atomistic simulations to cell adhesion and migration in engineered environments. At the atomic level, steered molecular dynamics simulations identify structural features crucial to the mechanical functions of these proteins.  Sensitive, molecular level force-measurement techniques experimentally test predictions of the simulations, and investigate relationships between the protein structures, their mechanisms and strengths of binding, and their response to mechanical force-''at the [[Atomic Force Microscopy|single molecule level]]''. Using [[Micropipette Manipulation|single cell manipulation]], we also determine quantitative relationships betwen the properties of single protein bonds and the dynamics and strength of adhesion between living cells. 
to:
Cell adhesion research focuses on molecular mechanisms of cell adhesion and on the impact of adhesion on critical cell functions such as migration and signaling.  %rfloat height=170px%http://www.scs.uiuc.edu/~leckband/uploads/Research/MPA3.jpg  Our work spans length scales ranging from atomistic simulations to cell adhesion and migration in engineered environments. At the atomic level, steered molecular dynamics simulations identify structural features crucial to the mechanical functions of these proteins.  Sensitive, molecular level force-measurement techniques experimentally test predictions of the simulations, and investigate relationships between the protein structures, their mechanisms and strengths of binding, and their response to mechanical force-''at the [[Atomic Force Microscopy|single molecule level]]''. Using [[Micropipette Manipulation|single cell manipulation]], we also determine quantitative relationships betwen the properties of single protein bonds and the dynamics and strength of adhesion between living cells. 
Added lines 1-8:
'''MECHANOSENSING'''.

In a '''new direction''' in collaboration with [[http://mechse.illinois.edu/content/directory/faculty/profile.php?user_id=1498&page=2|Ning Wang]], we are investigating how intercellular adhesion proteins sense mechanical force and transmit proportional signals between cells in tissues. Using precision force probes, we demonstrated directly that cadherin complexes at cell-cell junctions are mechanosensors. We are investigating how force-induced conformational changes in proteins in this complex trigger molecular and signaling cascades that regulate cell functions in tissues and in engineered scaffolds.

%rfloat height=250px%http://www.scs.uiuc.edu/~leckband/uploads/Research/Strengthening.jpg

Our approach combines nanomechanical measurements and live cell imaging to follow force-actuated changes in the cell in real time.  We are collaborating with [[http://www.feinberg.northwestern.edu/igp/facindex/GottardiC.html|Cara Gottardi]] and with [[http://www.hubrecht.eu/research/derooij/leader.html|J. de Rooij]] to identify key cellular components required for mechanosensing. In addition, we are using molecular dynamics simulations to determine how forces alter protein conformations in order to identify atomic scale mechanisms of force transduction.

Changed lines 11-12 from:
Cell adhesion research focuses on molecular mechanisms of cell adhesion and on the impact of adhesion on critical cell functions such as migration and signaling.  %rfloat height=170px%http://www.scs.uiuc.edu/~leckband/uploads/Research/MPA3.jpg
to:
Cell adhesion research focuses on molecular mechanisms of cell adhesion and on the impact of adhesion on critical cell functions such as migration and signaling.
 %rfloat height=170px%http://www.scs.uiuc.edu/~leckband/uploads/Research/MPA3.jpg
Changed lines 21-27 from:
%rfloat height=250px%http://www.scs.uiuc.edu/~leckband/uploads/Research/Strengthening.jpg

'''MECHANOSENSING'''.

In a '''new direction''' in collaboration with [[http://mechse.illinois.edu/content/directory/faculty/profile.php?user_id=1498&page=2|Ning Wang]], we are investigating how intercellular adhesion proteins sense mechanical force and transmit proportional signals between cells in tissues. Using precision force probes, we demonstrated directly that cadherin complexes at cell-cell junctions are mechanosensors. We are investigating how force-induced conformational changes in proteins in this complex trigger molecular and signaling cascades that regulate cell functions in tissues and in engineered scaffolds.

Our approach combines nanomechanical measurements and live cell imaging to follow force-actuated changes in the cell in real time.  We are collaborating with [[http://www.feinberg.northwestern.edu/igp/facindex/GottardiC.html|Cara Gottardi]] and with [[http://www.hubrecht.eu/research/derooij/leader.html|J. de Rooij]] to identify key cellular components required for mechanosensing. In addition, we are using molecular dynamics simulations to determine how forces alter protein conformations in order to identify atomic scale mechanisms of force transduction.
to:

Changed lines 7-11 from:
To determine how adhesive cues control cell functions, we use microfabrication and surface chemistry to generate controlled, concentration fields of adhesive cues, in order to determine how these signals direct cell migration or alter such cell functions as differentiation or proliferation.  Nanopatterned materials are used to ask whether cells sense nanoscale features as well as the size and spatial distribution of defined cues.  How many molecules are required to trigger cell signaling?  On what length scales do cells sense biochemical or mechanical differences?

Recent studies combines live cell imaging with surface patterning to visualize directly how specifically patterned signals trigger
real-time spatiotemporal changes in cells as they encounter specific cues.  This powerful combination of precision surface engineering with state of the art imaging will identify crucial biological design rules that define how cells read their environment to instruct cell behavior. 

to:
To determine how adhesive cues control cell functions, we use microfabrication and surface chemistry to generate controlled, concentration fields of adhesive cues. A recent study assessed how these signals direct cell migration or alter such cell functions as differentiation or proliferation.  With nanopatterned materials we ask whether cells sense nanoscale features as well as the spatial distribution of defined cues.  How many molecules are required to trigger cell signaling?  On what length scales do cells sense biochemical or mechanical differences?

Recent studies combine live cell imaging with surface patterning to visualize directly how specifically patterned biologically active molecules trigger
real-time spatiotemporal changes in cells.  This powerful combination of precision surface engineering with state of the art imaging will identify crucial biological design rules that define how cells read their environment to instruct cell behavior. 

Changed lines 16-18 from:
In a '''new direction''' with [[http://mechse.illinois.edu/content/directory/faculty/profile.php?user_id=1498&page=2|Ning Wang]], we are investigating how intercellular adhesion proteins sense mechanical force and transmit proportional signals between cells in tissues. Using nanoscale force probes, we demonstrated directly that cadherin complexes at cell-cell junctions are mechanosensors. We are investigating how force-induced conformational changes in proteins in this complex trigger molecular and signaling cascades that regulate cell functions in tissues and in engineered scaffolds.

Our approach combines nanomechanical measurements and live cell imaging to following force-actuated changes in the cell in real time.  We are collaborating with [[http://www.feinberg.northwestern.edu/igp/facindex/GottardiC.html|Cara Gottardi]] and with [[http://www.hubrecht.eu/research/derooij/leader.html|J. de Rooij]] to identify key cellular components required for mechanosensing. In addition, we are using molecular dynamics simulations to determine how forces alter protein conformations in order to identify atomic scale mechanisms of force transduction.
to:
In a '''new direction''' in collaboration with [[http://mechse.illinois.edu/content/directory/faculty/profile.php?user_id=1498&page=2|Ning Wang]], we are investigating how intercellular adhesion proteins sense mechanical force and transmit proportional signals between cells in tissues. Using precision force probes, we demonstrated directly that cadherin complexes at cell-cell junctions are mechanosensors. We are investigating how force-induced conformational changes in proteins in this complex trigger molecular and signaling cascades that regulate cell functions in tissues and in engineered scaffolds.

Our approach combines nanomechanical measurements and live cell imaging to follow force-actuated changes in the cell in real time.  We are collaborating with [[http://www.feinberg.northwestern.edu/igp/facindex/GottardiC.html|Cara Gottardi]] and with [[http://www.hubrecht.eu/research/derooij/leader.html|J. de Rooij]] to identify key cellular components required for mechanosensing. In addition, we are using molecular dynamics simulations to determine how forces alter protein conformations in order to identify atomic scale mechanisms of force transduction.
August 15, 2010, at 11:02 AM by 76.191.16.15 -
Changed line 4 from:
Our work spans length scales ranging from atomistic simulations to cell adhesion and migration in engineered environments. At the atomic level, steered molecular dynamics simulations identify structural features crucial to the mechanical functions of these proteins.  Sensitive, molecular level force-measurement techniques experimentally test predictions of the simulations, and investigate relationships between the protein structures, their mechanisms and strengths of binding, and their response to mechanical force-''at the [[AFM|single molecule level]]''. Using [[Micropipette Manipulation|single cell manipulation]], we also determine quantitative relationships betwen the properties of single protein bonds and the dynamics and strength of adhesion between living cells. 
to:
Our work spans length scales ranging from atomistic simulations to cell adhesion and migration in engineered environments. At the atomic level, steered molecular dynamics simulations identify structural features crucial to the mechanical functions of these proteins.  Sensitive, molecular level force-measurement techniques experimentally test predictions of the simulations, and investigate relationships between the protein structures, their mechanisms and strengths of binding, and their response to mechanical force-''at the [[Atomic Force Microscopy|single molecule level]]''. Using [[Micropipette Manipulation|single cell manipulation]], we also determine quantitative relationships betwen the properties of single protein bonds and the dynamics and strength of adhesion between living cells. 
August 15, 2010, at 11:01 AM by 76.191.16.15 -
Changed line 4 from:
Our work spans length scales ranging from atomistic simulations to cell adhesion and migration in engineered environments. At the atomic level, steered molecular dynamics simulations identify structural features crucial to the mechanical functions of these proteins.  Sensitive, molecular level force-measurement techniques experimentally test predictions of the simulations, and investigate relationships between the protein structures, their mechanisms and strengths of binding, and their response to mechanical force-''at the single molecule level''. Using [[Micropipette Manipulation|single cell manipulation]], we also determine quantitative relationships betwen the properties of single protein bonds and the dynamics and strength of adhesion between living cells. 
to:
Our work spans length scales ranging from atomistic simulations to cell adhesion and migration in engineered environments. At the atomic level, steered molecular dynamics simulations identify structural features crucial to the mechanical functions of these proteins.  Sensitive, molecular level force-measurement techniques experimentally test predictions of the simulations, and investigate relationships between the protein structures, their mechanisms and strengths of binding, and their response to mechanical force-''at the [[AFM|single molecule level]]''. Using [[Micropipette Manipulation|single cell manipulation]], we also determine quantitative relationships betwen the properties of single protein bonds and the dynamics and strength of adhesion between living cells. 
August 15, 2010, at 10:59 AM by 76.191.16.15 -
Changed lines 3-4 from:
Cell adhesion research focuses on molecular mechanisms of cell adhesion and on the impact of adhesion on critical cell functions such as migration and signaling. 
%rfloat height=170px%http://www.scs.uiuc.edu/~leckband/uploads/Research/MPA3.jpg
to:
Cell adhesion research focuses on molecular mechanisms of cell adhesion and on the impact of adhesion on critical cell functions such as migration and signaling.  %rfloat height=170px%http://www.scs.uiuc.edu/~leckband/uploads/Research/MPA3.jpg
August 12, 2010, at 05:48 PM by 130.126.231.65 -
Changed line 17 from:
In a '''new direction''' with [[http://mechse.illinois.edu/content/directory/faculty/profile.php?user_id=1498&page=2|Ning Wang]], we are investigating on how intercellular adhesion proteins sense mechanical force and transmit proportional signals between cells in tissues. Using nanoscale force probes, we demonstrated directly that cadherin complexes at cell-cell junctions are mechanosensors. We are investigating how force-induced conformational changes in proteins in this complex trigger molecular and signaling cascades that regulate cell functions in tissues and in engineered scaffolds.
to:
In a '''new direction''' with [[http://mechse.illinois.edu/content/directory/faculty/profile.php?user_id=1498&page=2|Ning Wang]], we are investigating how intercellular adhesion proteins sense mechanical force and transmit proportional signals between cells in tissues. Using nanoscale force probes, we demonstrated directly that cadherin complexes at cell-cell junctions are mechanosensors. We are investigating how force-induced conformational changes in proteins in this complex trigger molecular and signaling cascades that regulate cell functions in tissues and in engineered scaffolds.
August 12, 2010, at 05:47 PM by 130.126.231.65 -
Changed line 17 from:
In a '''new direction''' with Ning Wang, we are investigating on how intercellular adhesion proteins sense mechanical force and transmit proportional signals between cells in tissues. Using nanoscale force probes, we demonstrated directly that cadherin complexes at cell-cell junctions are mechanosensors. We are investigating how force-induced conformational changes in proteins in this complex trigger molecular and signaling cascades that regulate cell functions in tissues and in engineered scaffolds.
to:
In a '''new direction''' with [[http://mechse.illinois.edu/content/directory/faculty/profile.php?user_id=1498&page=2|Ning Wang]], we are investigating on how intercellular adhesion proteins sense mechanical force and transmit proportional signals between cells in tissues. Using nanoscale force probes, we demonstrated directly that cadherin complexes at cell-cell junctions are mechanosensors. We are investigating how force-induced conformational changes in proteins in this complex trigger molecular and signaling cascades that regulate cell functions in tissues and in engineered scaffolds.
August 12, 2010, at 03:21 PM by 130.126.231.65 -
Changed line 5 from:
Our work spans length scales ranging from atomistic simulations to cell adhesion and migration in engineered environments. At the atomic level, steered molecular dynamics simulations identify structural features crucial to the mechanical functions of these proteins.  Sensitive, molecular level force-measurement techniques experimentally test predictions of the simulations, and investigate relationships between the protein structures, their mechanisms and strengths of binding, and their response to mechanical force-''at the single molecule level''. Using single cell manipulation, we also determine, at the cell level, the relationships betwen the properties of single protein bonds and the dynamics and strength of adhesion between living cells. 
to:
Our work spans length scales ranging from atomistic simulations to cell adhesion and migration in engineered environments. At the atomic level, steered molecular dynamics simulations identify structural features crucial to the mechanical functions of these proteins.  Sensitive, molecular level force-measurement techniques experimentally test predictions of the simulations, and investigate relationships between the protein structures, their mechanisms and strengths of binding, and their response to mechanical force-''at the single molecule level''. Using [[Micropipette Manipulation|single cell manipulation]], we also determine quantitative relationships betwen the properties of single protein bonds and the dynamics and strength of adhesion between living cells. 
August 12, 2010, at 01:00 PM by 130.126.231.65 -
Changed lines 17-19 from:
In a '''new direction''', we are investigating on how intercellular adhesion proteins sense mechanical force and transmit proportional signals between cells in tissues. Using nanoscale force probes, we demonstrated directly that cadherin complexes at cell-cell junctions are mechanosensors. We are investigating how force-induced conformational changes in proteins in this complex trigger molecular and signaling cascades that regulate cell functions in tissues and in engineered scaffolds.

We are using a unique combination of
nanomechanical measurements and live cell imaging to following force-actuated changes in the cell in real time.  We are collaborating with [[http://www.feinberg.northwestern.edu/igp/facindex/GottardiC.html|Cara Gottardi]] and with [[http://www.hubrecht.eu/research/derooij/leader.html|J. de Rooij]] to identify key cellular components required for mechanosensing. In addition, we are using molecular dynamics simulations to determine how forces alter protein conformations in order to identify atomic scale mechanisms of force transduction.
to:
In a '''new direction''' with Ning Wang, we are investigating on how intercellular adhesion proteins sense mechanical force and transmit proportional signals between cells in tissues. Using nanoscale force probes, we demonstrated directly that cadherin complexes at cell-cell junctions are mechanosensors. We are investigating how force-induced conformational changes in proteins in this complex trigger molecular and signaling cascades that regulate cell functions in tissues and in engineered scaffolds.

Our approach combines
nanomechanical measurements and live cell imaging to following force-actuated changes in the cell in real time.  We are collaborating with [[http://www.feinberg.northwestern.edu/igp/facindex/GottardiC.html|Cara Gottardi]] and with [[http://www.hubrecht.eu/research/derooij/leader.html|J. de Rooij]] to identify key cellular components required for mechanosensing. In addition, we are using molecular dynamics simulations to determine how forces alter protein conformations in order to identify atomic scale mechanisms of force transduction.
August 12, 2010, at 12:59 PM by 130.126.231.65 -
Changed line 13 from:
%rfloat height=200px%http://www.scs.uiuc.edu/~leckband/uploads/Research/Strengthening.jpg
to:
%rfloat height=250px%http://www.scs.uiuc.edu/~leckband/uploads/Research/Strengthening.jpg
August 12, 2010, at 12:59 PM by 130.126.231.65 -
Added line 11:
August 12, 2010, at 12:59 PM by 130.126.231.65 -
Changed lines 1-2 from:
'''CELL ADHESION'''
to:
'''CELL ADHESION'''.
Changed lines 12-14 from:
%rfloat height=220px%http://www.scs.uiuc.edu/~leckband/uploads/Research/Strengthening.jpg

'''MECHANOSENSING''' 
to:
%rfloat height=200px%http://www.scs.uiuc.edu/~leckband/uploads/Research/Strengthening.jpg

'''MECHANOSENSING'''.
August 12, 2010, at 12:58 PM by 130.126.231.65 -
Deleted line 1:
August 12, 2010, at 12:58 PM by 130.126.231.65 -
Changed line 5 from:
Our work spans length scales ranging from atomistic simulations to cell adhesion and migration in engineered environments. At the atomic level, steered molecular dynamics simulations identify structural features crucial to the mechanical functions of these proteins.  Sensitive, molecular level force-measurement techniques experimentally test predictions of the simulations, and investigate relationships between the protein structures, their mechanisms and strengths of binding, and their response to mechanical force. Measurements of the dynamics of binding of single cell pair test, at the cell level, relationships betwen the properties of single protein bonds and the dynamics and strength of adhesion at the cell level
to:
Our work spans length scales ranging from atomistic simulations to cell adhesion and migration in engineered environments. At the atomic level, steered molecular dynamics simulations identify structural features crucial to the mechanical functions of these proteins.  Sensitive, molecular level force-measurement techniques experimentally test predictions of the simulations, and investigate relationships between the protein structures, their mechanisms and strengths of binding, and their response to mechanical force-''at the single molecule level''. Using single cell manipulation, we also determine, at the cell level, the relationships betwen the properties of single protein bonds and the dynamics and strength of adhesion between living cells

Page last modified on September 13, 2014, at 06:41 AM